The future looks very bright for these types of new programs. Noradrenergic and cholinergic interactions in the amygdala and the modulation of memory storage. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 47 1 , 17—31. American Sociological Review, 52, 1—14. This describes many if not most social exposures. While there is strong evidence for the social gradient effect in health disparities, the challenge to current and future research is in determining the causes of these inequalities.
Historically, gerontology training programs emphasized interdisciplinarity in their curricula. In this book we conceptualize disparities as a complex, dynamic function of intergenerational positioning, historical time, period events, and cohort differences. The many faces of stress. These were most frequently work-related 33% or personal development 23% courses. Journals of Gerontology: Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 5, S321—S329. Linking Exposure Development Models With Etiologic Timing Models While the life-course models operate at the juncture of risk factor and disease etiology, they are primarily informed by our understanding of the etiology of the disease or health outcome. Several independent studies have found an association between measures of brain or head size and late-life cognitive function Graves et al.
Journals of Gerontology Series A: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, 63 11 , 1241. Journal of Insurance Medicine, 40 1 , 38—43. Health in the United States, 1994. Deconstructing race found that literacy level was directly responsible for the differences found between African Americans and Whites on the Boston Naming Test. Given the evidence on environmental cognitive demands and cognitive development, removing environmental complexity and educational opportunities from the daily lives of the elderly is likely to have negative consequences for their cognitive health. American Journal of Hypertension, 22 4 , 417—424. Socioeconomic differences in health: No easy solution.
An important element in biobehavioral investigations is how the variables of interest vary by and change with age. Old age presents more challenges than other stages of the life span; plasticity and resilience in late life addresses the ability to compensate for age-related losses. United States life tables, 2002. Birth weight and cognitive function in the British 1946 birth cohort: Longitudinal population based study. Cognitive training for persons with mild cognitive impairment. Counter to these two positions, however, are proposals regarding reduced heterogeneity with age, especially among the oldest old.
The rise in the incidence of type 2 diabetes has been particularly strong among racial—ethnic minority groups. Still others have suggested that the environmental affects on physical activity might vary by key sociodemographic characteristics, thus reducing the observable genetic contribution Lauderdale et al. However, research has shown that they do not, in and of themselves, completely explain the patterning of these conditions across groups within a given population, much less across populations. One position argues that early adult life is a phase when within-cohort heterogeneity and social pathways expand greatly and that the consequences of this expansion are maintained for the rest of life. There was a strong social gradient: adults who previously obtained more education were more likely to continue participation in adult education. Personal characteristics, social networks and social behavior. The Journals of Gerontology: Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 61, P319—P326.
Ethnic and socioeconomic differences in cardiovascular disease risk factors: Findings for women from the third national health and nutrition examination survey, 1988—1944. They note that inequalities in material, psychological, and social resources associated with xxiv Introduction socioeconomic and race—ethnic disparities may interact with genetic predispositions and epigenetic gene expressions to create individual differences over the life span. Social structure and social construction of life stages. Research in Economics, 54 1 , 3—56. Jackson is a past-Chair of the Section on Social, Economic, and Political Sciences of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the Section on Social and Behavioral Sciences, and the Task Force on Minority Issues of the Gerontological Society of America. Social relations: An examination of social networks, social support, and sense of control. These population trends demonstrate the need for a lifecourse approach to understanding disparities in cardiometabolic disorders, because while these inequalities generally emerge at younger ages, they clearly accelerate over the life course.
International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 12 3 , 171—179. According to life-course theory the social context affects individuals both directly and indirectly. Both perspectives ask whether the range of disparities and distribution of functioning observed in a sample expands or contracts across the life course. Intraindividual variability in perceived control in a older sample: The MacArthur successful aging studies. Family status and mental health.
Longstanding ethnic diversity, as well as recent immigration patterns, indicates that special attention needs to be paid to these differences. Beyond marital status: Partner history and wellbeing in old age. At an informal level, individuals and subgroups create beliefs and attitudes about age categories e. A handful of studies suggest complex links between occupational characteristics and subsequent cognitive outcomes Kröger et al. One explanation posits that chronic hypertension can cause structural changes of the cerebral vessel i. For example, note that in all of the models shown in Figures 2. American Journal of Sociology, 112 6 , 1886—1924.