Reformation and Counter-Reformation, by Hans J. Lesbians in Love and Compromising Situations was primarily white, and its founders had been inspired by the formation of the Gay and Lesbian Association on a university campus. Abstract: Historical Dictionary of Homosexuality provides a comprehensive survey of same-sex relations from ancient China and Greece to the contemporary world. Terms in bold within an entry are cross-references. Brown and Juan Carlos Flores, 2007 77.
Although records from this era are fragmentary, there is some evidence that Germanic tribes encouraged close relations between men and older youths and may have had formalized pederastic relations like in ancient Greece. The history of same-sex sexuality in sub-Saharan Africa prior to the influx of Western missionaries and then colonialism is obscure. He has also published a very relevant book, On the Use and Abuse of Foucault for Politics. Netherlands: The country enacted a registered partnership law. Ancient Greek Philosophy, by Anthony Preus, 2007 79. Aquinas did not argue that procreation was a necessary part of moral sex; married couples could enjoy sex without the mo- tive of having children.
As such, this form of relation involves initiation to manhood or other rite-of-passage aspects. The Casper, Wyoming, chapter of Parents and Friends of Lesbians and Gays has been generous and welcoming; I thank all of its members. For instance, same-sex sexual relations are less problematic for younger men but become more so as one rises in age or social status. It repealed the law a decade later. Second, the conceptual framework that pushes toward bringing together these topics and political concerns is just one of several possible frameworks, and it is useful to keep them distinct as far as historical study.
There also clearly was a lot of regional variation across tribes. Some look at the broad variation in understandings of sexuality, includ- ing same-sex attraction, and are struck by what they see as profound discontinuity. The reverse also has generally proven to be true: societies that are tolerant of minorities generally treat persons attracted to the same sex well, too. Homosexuals have historically been among the first to be persecuted by regimes or movements bent upon thoroughgoing social control, usually aimed at imposing a homogeneous culture. The next year, the court mandated that same-sex relationships be recognized in immigration and naturalization law. In addition to homo- sexual rights, it fought for the rights of women and general sexual freedom, seeing all of these issues as connected.
By the early 20th century, the tradition was largely dead. The three great religions that deeply influenced ancient China- Taoism, Buddhism, and Confucianism— did not overtly condemn homosexuality. Finland: The government enacted a registered partnership law. Some police harassment and surveillance continued, however. Category: Social Science Author : Ronald J. Born in North Africa on the outskirts of the Roman Empire, Augustine eventually became one of the most important theologians in Christianity. In 1879, Pennsylvania amended its anti-sodomy law to include male-male oral sex.
In ancient Greece, the gender of one's sex partner was less important than whether one was penetrating or penetrated. They try to carve out private spaces in which it is safe to meet others attracted to their own sex, whether for social or sexual purposes, and create networks of social support. Same-sex attraction has generally been a minority sexuality; it has been the object of tremendous repression and vociferous complaint but also one of praise by talented poets and philosophers. In 1956, however, a California psychologist, Evelyn Hooker, published an influential paper, which argued that homosexuality was neither a cause nor a manifestation of pathology. The unit soon became renowned for its valor in battle.
Great Britain: Havelock Ellis published the English-language edition of his Sexual Inversion. Although it is common today in Europe and North America to in- clude transgender issues with lesbian and gay ones, this work does not. This is also true about those who have had, or do have, what could be called minority sexualities. It expanded the ban to the workplace in 2007. Committed to funding pro-gay candidates for public office, it also lobbies on behalf of gay rights.
Orthodox Church, by Michael Prokurat, Alexander Golitzin, and Michael D. The individual, increasingly liberated from an all-encompassing social architecture that had determined where one would live, how one would worship, and who one would be able to marry, was able to enter into relationships and contracts whether of an economic or marital sort more freely. The history of sexuality is central to social history, the history of ideas, the realization or repression of human rights, and other areas of focus. Global in its coverage of the variety of same-sex relations, their legal treatment, and social norms concerning same-sex attraction, this reference includes a chronology, an introductory essay, a bibliography, and cross-referenced dictionary entries on specific countries and regions, influential historical figures, laws that criminalized same-sex sexuality, various historical terms that have been used to refer to aspects of same-sex love, and contemporary events and legal decisions. Feminist scholars in the 1970s, and later lesbian scholars, subjected the field to insightful criticism about its male and Western-oriented viewpoint. Islamic Fundamentalist Movements in the Arab World, Iran, and Turkey, by Ahmad S.