Hence, it is highly important to encourage contact between urban children and natural environments, as it enables future generations to have a better connection with nature, which is essential for biodiversity conservation. We recruited 267 children for our study; 110 children maintained contact with a forest, while 157 had no contact with an urban forest. . Due to the high temperatures, low precipitation, and resource scarcity in the Caatinga, as well as the lack of physiological adaptations e.
Animals rested longer and reduced other activities, such as foraging, when temperatures were higher. Municipalities generally have a low level of institutional capacity and there is no evidence that the municipalities most at threat from environmental change are taking proactive measures to reduce their vulnerability. We observed behavioral variations in response to temperature fluctuation throughout the day. During a 6-month period 3 months of dry season and 3 months of wet season , we collected data on the diet of 19 common marmosets distributed in five groups and estimated their behavioral time budget during both the dry and rainy seasons.
We provide the first information on the behavior of a small primate Callithrix jacchus inhabiting a semiarid Caatinga environment in northeastern Brazil. We found that except for the dominant breeding female, rank based on aggression was not a strong predictor of feeding success. Cladode exploitation required perceptual and motor skills to safely access the food resource, which is protected by sharp spines. In relation to the diet, we recorded the consumption of prey items such as insects, spiders, and small vertebrates. The study was carried out in a 400-ha area of Caatinga in the northeast of Brazil.
As a result, scientists and policy makers now have robust and spatially explicit knowledge and forecasts of critical phenomena such as deforestation and bioclimatic uncertainty. Our findings confirm that common marmosets inhabiting the Caatinga adjust their behavioral patterns to cope with the high temperatures that characterize this environment and highlight their ability to survive across a wide range of different environmental conditions. Here, we assess the environmental capacity of municipalities in the Brazilian legal Amazon based on data from a self-assessment survey and from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics database. Irrespective of the instance under consideration, public perception on animal welfare depends on a myriad of biological and sociocultural factors, ranging from people's gender and age to their own experiences and values.
We encouraged the children to express their knowledge of the natural environment through drawings. No significant differences were detected regarding other behaviors. The knowledge on people's perception will help to refine the message to different audiences, which in turn may increase the pressure on decisionmakers to promote positive welfare in animals. While the great public concern towards farm and laboratory animals resulted in increased efforts to assess animal welfare in these instances, less attention has been given to pets, captive wild animals and their use for entertainment purposes.
Although the breeding female in each group occupied the highest rank position and obtained the greatest daily feeding success, all other group members, including adults and juveniles experienced relatively equal feeding success across most experimental conditions. Both study groups exploited home ranges of 2. The last 20 years have seen remarkable progress in monitoring and modelling environmental change in the Amazon region. Such a phenomenon is particularly concerning when children are involved because they represent future generations. Our findings show that common marmosets can survive under challenging conditions in part because of adjustments in their behavior and in part because of changes in their diet.
Semiarid environments are known for climate extremes such as high temperatures, low humidity, irregular precipitations, and apparent resource scarcity. The replacement of natural environments with urban centers has increased the distance between people and nature, which generates an indifference and apathy towards natural areas. Our results showed that contact with a forest granted children greater knowledge of the native animals, but it did not seem to affect their knowledge of the vegetation. We also observed the consumption of plant items, including prickly cladodes, which represents a previously undescribed food item for this species. We conducted a series of controlled field experiments designed to investigate how resource distribution one or three of four reward platforms and amount of food on a reward platform affected foraging strategies and individual feeding success in four groups of wild common marmosets Callithrix jacchus living in the Caatinga of northeastern Brazil. Most of the observed behavioral patterns were influenced by temperature fluctuation.
However, the lack of contact with a forest caused the children to give greater importance to human components as part of the forest. At our field site, common marmoset groups are characterized by a single breeding female who can produce twin litters twice per year, strong social cohesion, and cooperative infant care provided principally by several adult male helpers. Cooperative infant caregiving, in which the number of helpers is positively correlated with offspring survivorship, requires a set of behavioral strategies that serve to reduce contest competition and promote prosocial behaviors at feeding sites. During the six-month period, we collected 246 hours of behavioral data of two groups 10 individuals of Callithrix jacchus. Resting significantly increased during the dry season, while playing was more frequent during the wet season.
Proximity to a natural area, even in an urban environment, seems to help draw attention to its components and sets the groundwork for knowledge construction. Here we present a short review on public perception of animal welfare in different instances and the factors influencing each one of them. Understanding people's perception on animal welfare is vital to promote people awareness and changes in attitudes towards this subject. We argue that structural reforms and capacity raising initiatives are urgently needed, especially in smaller, less economically developed municipalities located in areas at high risk of imminent environmental change. We aimed to investigate how a small neotropical primate Callithrix jacchus; the common marmoset manages to survive under the harsh conditions that a semiarid environment imposes.
However, whether this knowledge is used to support the implementation of policies and initiatives to cope with environmental changes in the Amazon depends on the ability of the political institutions to proactively integrate the scientific evidence into land planning at multiple spatial scales. In Brazil, municipalities are constitutionally responsible for legislating on land planning and therefore have a power to significantly influence the future trajectory of environmental change. This was accomplished using a balance of behavioral strategies related to contest competition, scramble competition associated with a finder's advantage , and social tolerance sharing the same feeding platform. . . .