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Normalizing Japan: Politics, Identity, and the Evolution of Security Practice by Andrew L. Oros

normalizing japan oros andrew l

Though the security identity does not determine agent actions, those politicians who wish to cross a boundary, must pay the political costs. Oros' analysis is based on detailed exploration of three cases of policy evolution-restrictions on arms exports, the military use of outer space, and cooperation with the United States on missile defense-which shed light on other cases of policy change, such as Japan's deployment of its military to Iraq and elsewhere and its recent creation of a Ministry of Defense. Contending Explanations for Japan's Missile Defense Policy External Actors, Missile Defense, and the Evolution of Japan's Security Identity Missile Defense and the Politics of Security Identity Looking Forward: Missile Defense and Japan's Evolving Security Practice 7. In short, this volume seeks to move beyond important earlier studies which demonstrated both that security norms shaped the nature of Japanese security practice and, in separate work, how Japanese security practice has been constrained by several domestic and international factors, by setting out a framework for understanding the politically negotiated basis for Japan's security norms, and further how ideationally based security identity shapes and is shaped by political interaction. A special thank-you is due to the New America Foundation for allowing me the privilege of a quiet space to write in the fall of 2001 and spring of 2002, and to the East-West Center Washington and the George Washington University Sigur Center for Asian Studies for hosting me during a junior sabbatical leave period in 2005—2006. While some argue that Japan today is on the verge of developing a new security identity manifesting a true normalization of Japanese security practice, this study suggests that it is more likely that Japan's existing security identity will continue to exert a predictable and measurable influence on Japan's security behavior for many more years to come.

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Normalizing Japan by Andrew L Oros by Andrew L Oros

normalizing japan oros andrew l

The book is a welcome addition to a growing debate on the logic and pathways of Japan's postwar identity and foreign policy. A third group of targeted readers are general readers of foreign policy decision. Postwar Japanese Election Returns for the House of Representatives 1945—1955 4. Postwar Japanese Election Returns for the House of Representatives 1955—1993 5. Oros' analysis is based on detailed exploration of three cases of policy evolution—restrictions on arms exports, the military use of outer space, and cooperation with the United States on missile defense—which shed light on other cases of policy change, such as Japan's deployment of its military to Iraq and elsewhere and its recent creation of a Ministry of Defense.

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Normalizing Japan: Politics, Identity, and the Evolution of Security P

normalizing japan oros andrew l

Finally, the predictive question of the likely longevity of Japan's domestic antimilitarist security identity remains an important question: What makes this identity so resilient? The book is a welcome addition to a growing debate on the logic and pathways of Japan's postwar identity and foreign policy. Japanese political leaders' visits to the controversial Yasukuni Shrine—which enshrines the souls of fourteen Class A war criminals and along with its accompanying museum openly celebrates Japan's militarist rise in the 1930s and 1940s—in particular have fueled articles in the press about a future, more muscular and robust Japan. Any student of Japanese trade policy at the time would see the effect of this self-conceived unique identity on policy. Credit must be given to Oros for writing a book that is completely borderless with respect to sources, whether text or interviews; he represents a new breed of Japan specialists who operate with equal facility in Japan and in their own countries. Basrur Center for Global Studies, Mumbai Barry Buzan London School of Economics Thomas J. If we wish to use your personal information for a secondary reason, like marketing, we will ask you directly for your expressed consent.

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Normalizing Japan : Andrew L. Oros : 9780804700290

normalizing japan oros andrew l

Missile Defense, Alliance Politics, and Security Identity U. Thus, although the substance of this book focuses on Japan's evolving security practices, at its core this study attempts to reveal and to benchmark Japan's self-perceived security identity: how it is envisioned, how it has been institutionalized and reproduced over time, and how this factor continues to affect the politics and practice of external defense in Japan today. Oros shows how Japan's security identity, despite significant material changes in the domestic and international environment, remains rooted in domestic anti-militarism. Digital Library Federation, December 2002. While systematic polling indicates some shift in public and elite attitudes toward security issues a topic addressed in Chapter 7 of this volume , change in the area of security identity does not constitute the primary explanation for new security practices in Japan in recent years. Careful attention to the evolving relationships among actors, institutions, and identities is necessary to explain the important political change that is taking place in Japan today in the area of security policy.

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Normalizing Japan: Politics, Identity, and the Evolution of Security Practice

normalizing japan oros andrew l

Contending Explanations for Japan's Missile Defense Policy External Actors, Missile Defense, and the Evolution of Japan's Security Identity Missile Defense and the Politics of Security Identity Looking Forward: Missile Defense and Japan's Evolving Security Practice 7. Oros shows how Japan's security identity, despite significant material changes in the domestic and international environment, remains rooted in domestic anti-militarism. Such fears are misplaced at best and at worst stand to inhibit solutions to the real security problems faced by Japan and the East Asian region as a whole. Here Robert Lieberman's 2002 observations about political change are instructive. Represents a fine example of the synergy that can be created by drawing upon the strengths of both area studies and discipline. Limiting Conflict through Arms Export Restrictions The External Origins of the Arms Export Ban, 1945-1952 The Post-Occupation Policy of Restricted Arms Exports, 1952-1964 Institutionalizing Arms Export Restrictions, 1965-1979 New Challenges to Arms Export Restrictions, 1980-1989 The Limited Post-Cold War Evolution of Arms Export Restrictions Conclusions: Security Identity and Evolving Arms Export Restrictions 5. The Decision to Deploy Surveillance Satellites Conclusions: Security Identity and Evolving Use of Outer Space 6.

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Normalizing Japan: Politics, Identity, and the Evolution of Security P

normalizing japan oros andrew l

Also for patiently contributing to my formal studies at Columbia University, I would like to thank Robert Jervis, Lisa Anderson, Richard Betts, Kimberly Marten, Andrew Nathan, Jack Snyder, and Robert Uriu; and I wish to acknowledge the debt I owe to Professors Peter Nosco, Gordon Berger, and Peter Berton of the University of Southern California for encouraging me to deepen my study of Japan beyond the first steps of my early undergraduate years. Missile Defense, Alliance Politics, and Security Identity U. Major Japanese Government Policy Statements Regarding Arms Exports 6. Represents a fine example of the synergy that can be created by drawing upon the strengths of both area studies and discipline. The origins of what would become the three central tenets of Japan's postwar security identity—no traditional armed forces, no use of force by Japan except in self-defense, no Japanese participation in foreign wars—and examples of each are the subject of Chapter 2 of this volume. Such readers will find new insights from a reconsideration of past Japanese security practice as well as new empirical detail about several important cases of Japan's security policy past and present based on both archival and interview research conducted in Tokyo and Washington, D. Security Identity and the Evolution of Security Practice: Explaining Policy Change Explaining Policy Change Security Identities and Security Practice: Towards a General Framework Structuring Japan's Security Practice: Explaining Continuity and Change Complementary and Contending Explanations for Japanese Security Practice 2.

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Normalizing Japan: Politics, Identity, and the Evolution of Security Practice by Andrew L. Oros

normalizing japan oros andrew l

Missile Defense, Alliance Politics, and Security Identity U. The question is not what is normal in the abstract, but what is considered normal by Japan, and by Japanese. First, as carefully and correctly argued by Thomas Berger 1998 , while believers in pacifist principles helped to shape Japan's security identity of domestic antimilitarism, this group alone never determined foreign policy outcomes in postwar Japan. Today, those seeking the maintenance of Japan's postwar security identity of domestic antimilitarism also may support constitutional revision—in order to codify principles of the existing security identity for future generations. In particular, Soo-Im Kim and Masaki Fujiwara provided me a place to stay over countless short visits to Tokyo and, even more importantly, a window on what it means to be Japanese in Japan today. Oros' analysis is based on detailed exploration of three cases of policy evolution—restrictions on arms exports, the military use of outer space, and cooperation with the United States on missile defense—which shed light on other cases of policy change, such as Japan's deployment of its military to Iraq and elsewhere and its recent creation of a Ministry of Defense.

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Normalizing Japan : Andrew L. Oros : 9780804700290

normalizing japan oros andrew l

First are those who follow Japanese security policy closely and are concerned with key determinants of the policy-making process, the content of specific policies, and the likely future direction of Japan's security policy. It is not just a matter of history—in terms of a scholarly reexamination of Japan's past. I have been fortunate indeed to have benefited from such insightful and sustained support from them. Already a charismatic, popular leader—Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi—has taken Japan quickly down a path of increased military activities surprisingly quickly in the early twenty-first century. Major Japanese Government Policy Statements Regarding the Peaceful Use of Outer Space 7. Along with the work of Tomohito Shinoda, Richard Samuels, Soeya Yoshihide, and Michael Green, Andrew Oros's book on Japanese security rightly deserves to be called a classic on the subject. Second, what has been the effect of continued opposition to the long-standing security identity in terms of identity reproduction and actual security practice? It is often noted that support for revision now regularly reaches a majority of those polled, even supermajorities among elected officials Kliman 2006, p.

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Normalizing Japan : Andrew L. Oros : 9780804770668

normalizing japan oros andrew l

Oros' analysis is based on detailed exploration of three cases of policy evolution-restrictions on arms exports, the military use of outer space, and cooperation with the United States on missile defense-which shed light on other cases of policy change, such as Japan's deployment of its military to Iraq and elsewhere and its recent creation of a Ministry of Defense. They are therefore worthy of sustained reconsideration vis-à-vis previous characterizations of Japan's postwar security practice. I offer my collective thanks to them all, many of whom requested anonymity. About the Author: Andrew Oros is an Associate Professor of Political Science and International Studies at Washington College. This book should be required reading for current and aspiring Japan specialist in the arena of politics and security. These professors, together with Professors Martin Krieger and Abraham Lowenthal, have continued to serve as important mentors and sources of advice. A Shifting Wind in Japan Today? ¹³ Three important questions remain largely unaddressed, however: First, how can we explain change, or lack of change, in security practice despite a stable security identity—change evident in Japan today?.

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